Since Airbus launched the seat A six years ago, that question has been at the forefront for both pilots and passengers. Now Airbus has put its technology single passenger plane the test by inviting Flight International and other journals to evaluate the A, in the final stages of certification flight testing at Toulouse in France.
Despite well-publicised production delays, Airbus says it is on track to complete certification flight testing on the A in October. Route-proving will take place in November, and European type certification is expected single passenger plane December. Four long-range flights have already been conducted with passengers and 26 crew on board to work out the kinks in cabin and single passenger plane systems.
A deployment to Medellin, Columbia showed the A could handle equatorial heat and elevations of 7,ft 2,m above mean sea level. Icing certification tests have also been completed, and included both artificial shapes trials and natural icing encounters.
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While the new Intercontinental promises to carry passengers in a three-class configuration, narrowing the gap, in March this year Airbus showed the double-decker A could safely carry many more passengers in a high-density configuration.
A cabin evacuation test confirmed that passenger and 20 crew could exit the A in less than 90s using only half of the exit doors. While debate will continue over which of these aircraft is more economical, or represents the best value, Airbus to date has garnered orders for passenger and 25 freighter versions of the A The A may be an all-new aircraft, but it is undoubtedly an Airbus.
Since the introduction of the A, all Airbus aircraft have incorporated several major common features, including fly-by wire FBW flight controls and a common flightdeck configuration. In these two regards the A appears just as expected, but look beneath the surface and a whole host of innovations is revealed. The higher operating pressure significantly reduces weight, saving upwards of kg 1,lb compared with an equivalent bar system. Deletion single passenger plane the third hydraulic circuit Blue in other Airbus aircraft further reduces weight, but could have compromised operational safety were it not for the electrical backup hydraulic actuators EBHAsunique to the A, that can operate both the upper and lower rudder, half the elevators and a spoiler and two ailerons on each wing.
Further, one control surface in each axis is powered by the essential AC bus, which can be powered in flight solely by the ram air turbine RAT.
The overall layout reflects previous Airbus cockpits, but on a larger scale. In addition to the pilot and co-pilot seats, the flightdeck comes standard with two additional full-size seats aft, with provisions for an optional fifth seat.
The extra area provided by the large instrument panel and pedestal allows the addition of two extra liquid-crystal displays LCD as well as the onboard information system OIS screens. Each pilot is provided with a primary flight display PFD and navigation display NDwhile there are two single passenger plane integrated standby singlebörse imst system ISIS displays for back-up navigation.
Unique to the A, two pedestal-mounted keyboard and cursor control units KCCU provide an efficient interface between man and machine.
The KCCU interface allows for graphical en-route flight planning, a powerful capability not found on other Airbus aircraft. The features a smart checklist, navigated via a touchpad cursor control device CCDwhile the Dassault EASy and Gulfstream PlaneView integrated flightdecks I have single passenger plane allow the crew to interface with numerous avionics systems via a partnersuche bad driburg input device — a step not taken by Airbus.
Between each side console and the forward instrument panel are the large left and right displays for the OIS, which is still under development and promises to provide a full electronic flight bag EFB capability for the A The OIS single passenger plane allow for a paperless cockpit by providing minimum equipment and configuration deviation lists, aircraft flight and crew operating manuals, and navigation and weather charts digitally. In addition, weight and balance and performance computation tools will allow for onboard calculation of critical operational parameters.
FLIGHT TEST: Airbus A380
Initially As will be equipped with three laptops — one for each pilot and a back-up. The aircraft will have an electronic library from the start, but with paper airport charts and quick-reference handbook.
The OIS was not operational on our demonstration flight aircraft, but provisions for its installation had been made. The full-size keyboard felt substantial and, in the paperless cockpit, will greatly ease the tasks of data and text entry. The twist of the inboard wing section is marked, with the trailing edge dropping rapidly from the inner engine nacelle to the fuselage.
The landing-gear layout is similar to that of aexcept the body gear on the A each have six wheels.
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Once on board the aircraft, access to the flightdeck was via a four-step stairway from the main cabin deck. Aircraft start, taxi, take-off and climb to altitude were conducted by Airbus chief test pilot Jacques Rosay and several of the single passenger plane journalists taking part in the demonstration flight. Alignment of the three air data inertial reference systems was automatic using GPS and took approximately 7min.
Flight management system FMS initialisation and route entry were similar to other glass-cockpit aircraft. Take-off performance data were manually loaded from a sheet prepared by ground operations personnel. The OIS has the capability to provide this, but system architecture only allows data to flow from the aircraft to the OIS.
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Data transfer from the OIS to the aircraft is forbidden. Pre-start flows were straightforward, and the aircraft was pushed back for engine start. As with the A, both engines on single passenger plane wing are started simultaneously: Unlike in other Airbus aircraft, the engine start selector is now on the overhead panel, not the pedestal.
The dual-channel full-authority digital engine control managed the start sequence, providing fuel and ignition at the appropriate time. Each engine reached idle in less than 60s.
With all four engines running, the APU was shut down and a flight-control check conducted. The A is the first Airbus that does not have a tailplane trim wheel on the centre console.
Fitted to previous FBW Airbuses to give pilots a manual reversion option in the event of a full failure, the wheel is replaced by a pitch trim switch on the aft end of the pedestal. This limit will be reduced to 35kt on single passenger plane aircraft, and has a negligible impact on take-off performance, says Rosay. Smooth acceleration At take-off the aircraft weighed single passenger plane — well below the standard t maximum take-off weight MTOW — which included 90t of fuel and 1.
Сколько тысяч или миллионов лет, подумал Элвин, последователи Учителя собирались здесь, чтобы воздать ему почести. Стало ли им известно, что тот умер в изгнании на далекой Земле. Теперь это не имело значения.
This implies an operating weight empty OWE of For production aircraft, Airbus is projecting a typical OWE of t. For the take-off and first portion of the climb to altitude I occupied a seat on the upper deck of the passenger compartment.
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Полагаю, ответ тебе уже известен.
Интересно, подумал он, как идут дела у делегации, и как среагировал город на появление первых за столько миллионов лет пришельцев извне.
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single passenger plane Ground roll and time to lift-off, as recorded by the flight test engineer Fernando Alonso, were 1,m and 37s respectively. Distance and time to clear a 35ft obstacle were computed at 1,m and 43s respectively.
During the climb to FL 30,ftthe engine anti-ice was manually turned on when entering clouds at FL The number 2 engine nacelle anti-ice valve initially stayed closed, generating an ECAM message. After the valve was fixed, the ECAM message and limitation memo both went away.
Also during the climb, we were able to explore a new capability provided by the vertical display VD shown on the lower quarter of the ND.
The VD displays enhanced ground-proximity warning system terrain data and weather radar single passenger plane along with FMS vertical profile information to clearly show upcoming obstacles. The aircraft was levelled off at FL approximately 16min after brake release. About 8t of fuel had been burned from engine start to level-off. For a standard day, Airbus shows an initial cruise altitude of approximately 42,ft for our take-off weight, just below the maximum certified altitude of 43,ft.
At the standard t MTOW, an initial cruise altitude of just over 35,ft is indicated.
While level at FL a cruise speed of Mach 0. Flight control laws Indicated airspeed was kt, with a corresponding true airspeed of kt.
One of the hallmarks of Airbus FBW aircraft has been the incorporation of active envelope protection single passenger plane normal flight control laws. At FL with the autopilot off in level flight, the flying pilot selected climb power with the thrust levers. Shortly after passing the maximum operating Mach number of 0.
This same manoeuvre was later repeated below FL where the maximum operating speed kt was exceeded. Again the aircraft started a gentle pitch-up to arrest the Vmo exceedance.
In both cases, the thrust remained at the previously set value. In my opinion, mechanising the autothrust to retard power in an overspeed would slow the aircraft more rapidly while maintaining an assigned altitude, especially critical in reduced vertical separation minimum airspace.
Airbus points out that if the autothrust is single passenger plane then this function is activated, but that the autothrust will not engage automatically at high speed.
During flight test, the A showed itself to be docile at slow speeds. For all other configurations, the stall is defined by a G break, the point where single passenger plane load factor first drops while holding aft stick.
In idle power with full aft stick, a maximum AoA of In the roll axis, the A single passenger plane the same handling qualities and envelope protection as other FBW Airbus aircraft. Roll rate is commanded by lateral displacement of the sidestick.
Сейчас уже должно было бы установиться равновесие. ты что, уже Его голос звучал просительно; ландшафт продолжал уходить - Улетаю, - сказал Элвин. - Я видел мир совсем без жизни и мир, где жизни слишком много - и не знаю, который из них мне более неприятен.
Когда путешественники достигли двухкилометровой высоты, планета напоследок удивила single passenger plane еще .
As well as moving the three ailerons and six of the eight spoilers on each wing to attain the desired rate of roll, the flight control system automatically commands rudder deflection to minimise sideslip. Unlike the andwhich have two ailerons per wing one mid-wing and one near the tip all three ailerons on the A are located outboard of the outer engine pylon. At speeds above kt indicated the outermost aileron is locked out, the remaining two more than sufficient to attain desired roll rates.
Each aileron is commanded independently and, due to single passenger plane aeroelasticity, may be out of step with its wing mates — deflecting up, for example, single passenger plane the wing itself is rolling up.
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- FLIGHT TEST: Airbus A
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Она не несла конструктивных целей, и Центральный Компьютер без возражений убрал ее по просьбе Элвина.